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What is a good Vo2 max?

Female runner performing a VO2 max test in honolulu Hawaii

Evaluating VO2 Max: Benchmarks from Recreational Enthusiasts to Elite Athletes

Empower Run Lab | Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii

What is a good VO2 Max?

Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 Max) is a cornerstone measure of aerobic capacity and cardiovascular fitness. This comprehensive review synthesizes current literature to delineate "good" VO2 Max values across a spectrum from recreational participants to elite athletes. Through an analysis of peer-reviewed journals, we establish specific VO2 Max benchmarks, providing a valuable resource for assessing fitness levels and tailoring training programs.


VO2 Max, the maximal oxygen consumption rate during incremental exercise, reflects the cardiovascular system's efficiency in transporting and utilizing oxygen. Given its importance, a pertinent question arises: "What constitutes a good VO2 Max?" This review addresses this question, offering a detailed overview of VO2 Max benchmarks essential for differentiating between recreational, trained, and elite performance levels.

VO2 Max Benchmarks

Recreational Individuals

For the general population engaging in regular physical activity without competitive aspirations, VO2 Max values offer insight into overall health and aerobic fitness. According to Myers et al. (2017), average VO2 Max values for healthy adults range from 35 to 40 ml/kg/min. These values are considered satisfactory for maintaining good health and performing daily activities without undue fatigue.

Trained Individuals

Trained individuals, who partake in regular, structured training several times a week, exhibit higher VO2 Max levels. Helgerud et al. (2007) reported significant improvements in VO2 Max among trained subjects following high-intensity interval training, with values ranging from 45 to 55 ml/kg/min. These figures suggest enhanced aerobic efficiency and endurance capacity, distinguishing trained individuals from their recreational counterparts.

Competitive Athletes

Competitive athletes in endurance sports such as running, cycling, and cross-country skiing often achieve VO2 Max values that markedly exceed those of trained non-competitors. For this group, VO2 Max can range from 55 to 70 ml/kg/min, depending on the sport, training intensity, and individual genetic predispositions (Lundby, Montero, & Joyner, 2017). These elevated values reflect the athletes' high level of specialized training and their body's adaptation to intense aerobic demands.

Elite Athletes

Elite athletes represent the pinnacle of VO2 Max potential, with values often exceeding 70 ml/kg/min. In exceptional cases, values can surpass 80 ml/kg/min, as seen in elite male cross-country skiers and cyclists (Billat et al., 1999). Such extraordinary VO2 Max levels are indicative of superior cardiovascular and metabolic efficiency, enabling sustained performance at high intensities.

Factors Influencing VO2 Max

VO2 Max is influenced by various factors, including age, sex, genetic predisposition, training status, and altitude exposure. While training intensity and volume are modifiable factors that can significantly impact VO2 Max, genetic limitations also play a crucial role in determining the upper bounds of individual aerobic capacity.

Implications for Training and Performance

Understanding VO2 Max benchmarks is crucial for athletes and coaches to assess fitness levels, tailor training programs, and set realistic performance goals. Incremental training, incorporating both endurance and high-intensity interval sessions, has been shown to effectively enhance VO2 Max, supporting performance improvements across all levels of participation.


VO2 Max serves as a fundamental measure of aerobic fitness, with specific benchmark values distinguishing between recreational enthusiasts, trained individuals, competitive, and elite athletes. Recognizing these benchmarks aids in the assessment of cardiovascular fitness and the optimization of training regimens. As aerobic capacity is a critical determinant of endurance performance, striving towards these VO2 Max benchmarks can facilitate the achievement of personal and competitive fitness goals.


Billat, V. L., et al. (1999). Interval training at VO2max: effects on aerobic performance and overtraining markers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(1), 156-163.

Helgerud, J., et al. (2007). Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(4), 665-671.

Lundby, C., Montero, D., & Joyner, M. (2017). Biology of VO2 max: looking under the physiology lamp. Acta Physiologica, 220, 218-228.

Myers, J., et al. (2017). A Reference Equation for Normal Standards for VO2 Max: Analysis from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 60(1), 21-29.

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